Opinion: Importance Of Maternal Nutrition And Its Inter-generational Impact


Opinion Importance Of Maternal Nutrition And Its Inter-generational ImpactMaternal nutrition is the foundation stone for a child’s growth and development

Bihar: What, when, and how much we eat is an important roadmap of our health. This becomes more important during pregnancy when the health of a pregnant woman and that of her growing baby inside the womb are at stake. Nutrition at this stage has a generational impact. In India, 26.8 per cent of women (20-24 years) marry before 18 years and 8 per cent of girls get pregnant when they are adolescents. Leading to this, 22.9 per cent of women in India enter pregnancy as underweight (Body Mass Index<18.5). An average weight gain in pregnancy is about 7 kg only. Around 58 per cent of pregnant women are anaemic in India. (Data source: NFHS-4 2015-16, SRS 2016 & 2017, SRS 2016-18, CNNS 2016)

Also Read: POSHAN Maah: Nutri-Gardens Adopted To Improve Dietary Diversity And Nutritional Status Of Undernourished Children In Udaipur

Intergenerational Effects Of Maternal Nutrition

Maternal nutrition is the foundation stone for a child’s growth and development. It is critical for a woman’s health and well-being across life stages. Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR) is one of the leading risks of stunting (low height for age) worldwide. The FGR contributes to one-quarter of newborn deaths globally. Fetal stunting is evident in 8 weeks of pregnancy. Also, 70 per cent of brain develops inside the mother’s womb. If nutrition is not adequate, this physical and mental growth will be hampered.

Stunted growth in girls leads to short stature and poor nutritional status in adult life. Short maternal stature is a risk factor for small weight age babies. Poor maternal nutritional status at conception leads to inadequate gestational weight gain due to poor dietary intake. Short maternal stature is also a risk factor for childhood stunting,  increases with small for gestenational age babies and preterm birth. Some of these babies have poor cognitive development and impaired learning achievements in school. This may lead to poor productivity in adult life.

Also Read: How Air Pollution Impacts Pregnant Women And Foetus

The fetal origin of adult disease- it is now widely accepted that chronic diseases of adulthood are merely a result of lifestyle change and have a strong fetal life influence affecting the epigenetic. Diseases like coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension are the by-product of fetal life nutrition. Starvation in fetal life leads to a syndrome of insulin resistance. This is a fertile ground for development or aggravation of the same factors in adult life when there is relative prosperity.

Positive effects of preconception care are pivotal as the right start for pregnancy begins well before the conception itself. This is associated with a reduction in maternal and child mortality, prevent unintended pregnancies. It reduces stillbirth, preterm birth and low birth weight babies. There is a scope for preventing birth defects and neonatal infections.

Also Read: This Delhi Based NGO Aims To Improve The Quality Of Neonatal Care And Helps New Mothers And Children Be Healthy

Impact of adequate nutrition

These are some critical impact of adequate nutrition of mother:

  1. Improvement in micronutrient status of a mother
  2. Reduction in low birth weight babies
  3. Reduction in maternal mortality rate (MMR) from post delivery bleeding
  4. Reduction in maternal anaemia, sepsis, low birth weight and premature babies
  5. Reduction in MMR from pre-eclampsia/eclampsia
  6. Reduction in abortion/stillbirth, brain damage & congenital defects

Interventions To Improve The Maternal Nutrition

Counselling on healthy eating including dietary diversity and physical activity. In undernourished populations, balanced energy and protein dietary supplements can be initiated. Folic acid supplementation (400 microgram) during peri-conception and first trimester stage is recommended. Iron and folic acid supplementation (60mg elemental iron) daily from the second trimester (180 days). Calcium supplementation (1gm) daily from the second trimester (180 days). Deworming (albendazole 400mg) in the second trimester. Use of double fortified (iron and iodine) salt and restrict caffeine intake.

Also Read: National Nutrition Month: Benefits Of Eating Locally Produced Nutritious Foods At Complementary Feeding Stage

Food-acquired infections; pregnant women should be informed on how to reduce the risk of listeriosis by drinking only pasteurised milk, not eating ripened soft cheese such as Camembert, Brie and blue-veined cheese (there is no risk with hard cheeses, such as cheddar, or cottage cheese and processed cheese). The uncooked or undercooked, ready-prepared meal should not be taken.

Pregnant women should reduce the risk of salmonella infection by avoiding raw or partially cooked eggs or food that may contain them (such as mayonnaise). They should avoid raw or partially cooked meat, especially poultry.

Pregnant women should be informed of primary prevention measures to avoid toxoplasmosis infection, such as washing hands before handling food and thoroughly washing all fruits and vegetables, including ready-prepared salads; before eating, thoroughly cooking raw meats and ready-prepared chilled meals. They should be wearing gloves and thoroughly washing hands after handling soil and gardening, avoiding cat faeces in cat litter or in soil.

Also Read: Experts Recommend Early Breastfeeding Initiation, Awareness At Panchayat Level To Fight Malnutrition

Diet During pregnancy

In pregnancy, there is an additional energy requirement of 350 kcal and 23g protein. Three full meals and 2 nutritious snacks are recommended in the second and third trimester. Diet diversity indicates diet quality, associated with micronutrient adequacy. Minimum diet diversity is defined as the consumption of food items from at least 5 out of 10 defined food groups per day. Severely underweight pregnant women are advised to have one additional energy dense snack (350 kcal). Overweight/obese women are advised to take small meals throughout the day and replace two small meals with two nutritious low calorie (100-150 kcal) snacks, avoid fried, oily, and sweetened foods.

Also Read: Poshan Maah 2020: ‘Proper Nutrition Is Vital To Build A Prosperous Nation,’ Says Prime Minister Narendra Modi

Problems Leading To Poor Nutrition In Pregnancy

Many mothers face problems of nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and unusual cravings. All of these may affect the nutrition of the mother. Most of these can be tackled with time and doctor’s prescription. Knowledge about the right food is essential for the mother and her family members. There may be a low intake of nutrient-dense foods (fruits and vegetables) and a high intake of added sugars and fats (fried foods, processed foods, desserts). There may be a more serious issue of lack of resources for adequate nutrition.

Overweight or obesity may pose challenges to the adequate nutrition of the woman. Medical history of bariatric surgery or other conditions that cause malabsorption. Substance misuse, worm infestation, chronic illness like tuberculosis may aggravate the nutritional deficiencies.

Also Read: Poshan Month: Understanding Nutrition, What To Have And What To Avoid

Opinion: Importance Of Maternal Nutrition And Its Inter-generational Impact
Dr Meena Samant

 

Dr. Meena Sawant is the Secretary at Indian Society of Perinatology and Reproductive Biology (ISOPARB), Patna, Bihar.

Disclaimer: The opinions expressed within this article are the personal opinions of the author. The facts and opinions appearing in the article do not reflect the views of NDTV and NDTV does not assume any responsibility or liability for the same.

NDTV – Dettol Banega Swasth India campaign is an extension of the five-year-old Banega Swachh India initiative helmed by Campaign Ambassador Amitabh Bachchan. It aims to spread awareness about critical health issues facing the country. In wake of the current COVID-19 pandemic, the need for WASH (WaterSanitation and Hygiene) is reaffirmed as handwashing is one of the ways to prevent Coronavirus infection and other diseases. The campaign highlights the importance of nutrition and healthcare for women and children to prevent maternal and child mortality, fight malnutrition, stunting, wasting, anaemia and disease prevention through vaccines. Importance of programmes like Public Distribution System (PDS), Mid-day Meal Scheme, POSHAN Abhiyan and the role of Aganwadis and ASHA workers are also covered. Only a Swachh or clean India where toilets are used and open defecation free (ODF) status achieved as part of the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in 2014, can eradicate diseases like diahorrea and become a Swasth or healthy India. The campaign will continue to cover issues like air pollutionwaste managementplastic banmanual scavenging and sanitation workers and menstrual hygiene

World

3,33,53,558Cases

92,00,835Active

2,31,51,080Recovered

10,01,643Deaths

Coronavirus has spread to 188 countries. The total confirmed cases worldwide are 3,33,53,558 and 10,01,643 have died; 92,00,835 are active cases and 2,31,51,080 have recovered as on September 29, 2020 at 3:40 am.

India

61,45,291 70589Cases

9,47,576 -15064Active

51,01,397 84877Recovered

96,318 776Deaths

In India, there are 61,45,291 confirmed cases including 96,318 deaths. The number of active cases is 9,47,576 and 51,01,397 have recovered as on September 29, 2020 at 2:30 am.

State & District Details

State Cases Active Recovered Deaths

DistrictCases

Akola757

Aurangabad1974

Dhule228

Jalgaon1039

Mumbai45478

Mumbai Suburban5363

Nagpur692

Nashik1575

Palghar1421

Pune9920

Satara629

Solapur1291

Thane13660

Yavatmal150

Ahmednagar190

Amravati291

Beed54

Bhandara41

Buldhana88

Chandrapur32

Hingoli208

Jalna201

Kolhapur646

Latur139

Nanded176

Nandurbar42

Parbhani78

Raigad1462

Ratnagiri350

Sangli145

Gadchiroli42

gondia69

Osmanabad125

Sindhudurg114

Wardha11

Washim13

1351153 11921

265455

1049947 19932

35751 180

DistrictCases

Chittoor319

Guntur511

Krishna557

Kurnool795

Sri Potti Sriramulu Nell*296

Anantapur428

East Godavari356

Prakasam104

Srikakulam183

Visakhapatnam103

West Godavari199

Y.S.R.205

Vizianagaram23

681161 5487

63116

612300 7210

5745 37

DistrictCases

Bengaluru Rural40

Bengaluru Urban529

Mysuru107

Bagalkote103

Ballari60

Belagavi337

Bidar219

Chikkaballapura149

Dakshina Kannada179

Dharwad61

Gadag45

Kalaburagi669

Mandya346

Tumakuru36

Uttara Kannada95

Vijayapura201

Chamarajanagara0

Chikkamagaluru19

Chitradurga14

Davangere204

Hassan205

Haveri24

Kodagu4

Kolar29

Koppal5

Raichur369

Ramanagara3

Shivamogga67

Udupi1176

Yadgir538

582458 6892

104067

469750 7509

8641 59

DistrictCases

North Goa57

South Goa69

32396 438

4917

27072 612

407 6

DistrictCases

Chengalpattu1314

Chennai23324

Kanchipuram503

Madurai322

Namakkal83

Ranipet133

Thanjavur130

Thiruvallur774

Thiruvarur67

Tiruppur116

Vellore71

Virudhunagar185

Ariyalur444

Coimbatore188

Cuddalore477

Dharmapuri15

Dindigul175

Erode75

Kallakurichi324

Kanniyakumari110

Karur88

Nagapattinam99

Perambalur133

Pudukkottai53

Ramanathapuram119

Salem258

Sivaganga46

Tenkasi103

The Nilgiris17

Theni129

Tiruchirappalli119

Tirunelveli433

Tirupathur45

Tiruvannamalai496

Tuticorin333

Villupuram509

Krishnagiri43

586397 5589

46306

530708 5554

9383 70

DistrictCases

Kannur357

Kottayam73

Alappuzha76

Idukki40

Kasaragod333

Kollam118

Kozhikode90

Malappuram119

Palakkad224

Pathanamthitta98

Thiruvananthapuram104

Thrissur106

Ernakulam60

Wayanad36

179922 4538

57957 1171

121268 3347

697 20

DistrictCases

Raipur46

Korba100

Balod41

Baloda Bazar85

Balrampur17

Bastar2

Bemetara21

Bijapur2

Bilaspur100

Dantewada0

Dhamtari6

Durg31

Gariyaband10

Janjgir-Champa56

Jashpur77

Kabirdham52

Kanker19

Kondagaon0

Korea39

Mahasamund54

Mungeli87

Narayanpur0

Raigarh47

Rajnandgaon52

Sukma0

Surajpur9

Surguja14

108458 3725

33044 1383

74537 2313

877 29

DistrictCases

Hyderabad2475

MedchalMalkajgiri75

Ranga Reddy183

Suryapet87

Vikarabad40

Warangal Urban32

Adilabad22

Jagitial77

Jangoan8

Jayashankar Bhupalapally9

Jogulamba Gadwal40

Kamareddy11

Karimnagar17

Khammam26

Kumuram Bheem Asifabad8

Mahabubnagar30

Mancherial43

Medak11

Nalgonda33

Narayanpet3

Nirmal21

Nizamabad76

RajannaSircilla16

Sangareddy26

Bhadradri Kothagudem5

Mahabubabad10

Mulugu3

Nagarkurnool8

Peddapalli5

Siddipet7

Wanaparthy1

Warangal Rural4

YadadriBhuvanagiri40

189283 2072

29477

158690 2259

1116 9

DistrictCases

Baleshwar190

Bhadrak137

Jajapur322

Dhenkanal36

Kalahandi33

Kendrapara164

Khordha238

Koraput16

Sundargarh102

Anugul26

Balangir129

Bargarh16

Boudh34

Cuttack155

Deogarh33

Gajapati61

Ganjam581

Jagatsinghapur91

Jharsuguda8

Kandhamal28

Kendujhar34

Malkangiri20

Mayurbhanj73

Nabarangpur2

Nayagarh86

Nuapada69

Puri103

Rayagada2

Sambalpur16

Sonepur29

212609 3235

34211

177585 4014

813 16

DistrictCases

Barwani60

Bhopal1880

Dewas140

Dhar132

East Nimar266

Gwalior211

Indore3839

Jabalpur276

Ujjain799

Agar Malwa15

Alirajpur3

Betul35

Burhanpur351

Chhindwara16

Dindori29

Harda4

Hoshangabad37

Khargone196

Mandsaur112

Morena109

Raisen71

Ratlam51

Sagar228

Shajapur39

Shandol14

Sheopur26

Tikamgarh18

Vidisha37

Anuppur22

Ashoknagar13

Balaghat9

Bhind87

Chhatarpur35

Damoh26

Datia12

Guna8

Jhabua14

Katni3

Mandla15

Narsinghpur17

Neemuch319

Niwari0

Panna20

Rajgarh31

Rewa39

Satna24

Sehore12

Seoni2

Shivpuri15

Sidhi17

Singrauli13

Umaria10

124166 1957

21912

100012 2441

2242 35

DistrictCases

Ahmadabad17125

Anand107

Arvalli134

Banas Kantha147

Bhavnagar146

Gandhinagar410

PanchMahals107

Surat2311

Vadodara1555

Bharuch56

Botad55

Chhotaudepur37

Dang5

Dohad43

GirSomnath45

Jamnagar63

Kachchh99

Kheda98

Mahesana159

Mahisagar125

Narmada25

Naysari35

Patan105

Rajkot135

SabarKantha101

Surendranagar55

Tapi6

Valsad47

Amreli16

DevbhumiDwarka22

Junagadh31

Morbi4

Porbandar11

134461 1404

16689 56

114344 1336

3428 12

DistrictCases

Ajmer379

Banswara91

Bharatpur563

Jaipur2177

Jhalawar329

Jodhpur1748

Kota503

Nagaur500

Alwar90

Barmer34

Bhilwara250

Bikaner112

Chittorgarh188

Churu81

Dausa61

Dholpur60

Dungarpur374

Hanumangarh31

Jaisalmer53

Jhunjhunu64

Karauli17

Pali352

Rajsamand140

SawaiMadhopur26

Sikar231

Tonk171

Udaipur724

Baran59

Bundi5

Ganganagar8

Jalore164

Pratapgarh14

Sirohi130

130971 2112

20043 343

109472 1754

1456 15

DistrictCases

Faridabad867

Sonipat404

Ambala93

Bhiwani60

CharkiDadri43

Fatehabad38

Gurugram2950

Hisar98

Jhajjar114

Jind38

Kaithal48

Karnal104

Kurukshetra55

Nuh68

Palwal120

Panchkula39

Panipat78

Rohtak145

Sirsa50

Yamunanagar19

Mahendragarh47

Rewari56

125412 1630

15670

108411 2421

1331 24

DistrictCases

Agra933

Aligarh215

Amroha80

Bareilly17

Bijnor157

Bulandshahr166

Firozabad190

Gautam Buddha Nagar1119

Kanpur Nagar286

Lucknow386

Mathura129

Meerut504

Moradabad252

Muzaffarnagar117

Rae Bareli78

Rampur203

Saharanpur298

Sant Kabeer Nagar132

Varanasi243

Auraiya37

Ayodhya120

Azamgarh138

Baghpat68

Bahraich73

Balrampur49

Banda27

Basti214

Bhadohi60

Budaun23

Etah52

Etawah46

Ghaziabad794

Ghazipur159

Gonda59

Gorakhpur166

Hapur225

Hardoi49

Jalaun41

Jaunpur194

Jhansi41

Kannauj69

Kasganj16

Kaushambi6

Mainpuri46

Mau48

Mirzapur22

Pilibhit15

Pratapgarh15

Prayagraj30

Sambhal116

Shamli40

Shravasti23

Sitapur32

Sultanpur97

Unnao42

Ambedkar Nagar92

Amethi206

Ballia60

Barabanki168

Chandauli38

Chitrakoot4

Deoria143

Farrukhabad36

Fatehpur3

Hamirpur3

Hathras43

Kanpur Dehat4

Kheri72

Kushi Nagar67

Lalitpur3

Maharajganj85

Mahoba3

Shahjahanpur25

Siddharth Nagar159

Sonbhadra10

390875 3790

53953

331270 5382

5652 58

DistrictCases

Central4817

East2472

New Delhi3405

North3059

North East1914

North West5463

Shahdara1580

South2329

South East2446

South West2391

West4768

273098 1984

27123

240703 4052

5272 37

DistrictCases

Dhubri30

Goalpara19

Marigaon50

Baksa14

Barpeta28

Biswanath16

Bongaigaon12

Cachar80

Charaideo29

Chirang6

Darrang20

Dhemaji47

Dibrugarh61

Dima Hasao86

Golaghat203

Hailakandi57

Hojai89

Jorhat24

Kamrup42

Kamrup Metro276

KarbiAnglong13

Karimganj85

Kokrajhar37

Lakhimpur57

Majuli2

Nagaon143

Nalbari23

Sivasagar20

Sonitpur27

South SalmaraMancachar4

Tinsukia84

Udalguri28

West KarbiAnglong5

173629 3644

30662 1312

142300 2320

667 12

DistrictCases

East District3

North District0

South District3

West District0

2896 25

698 6

2164 18

34 1

DistrictCases

Buxar134

Gaya115

Munger188

Patna279

Rohtas256

Arwal52

Aurangabad75

Banka134

Begusarai243

Bhagalpur266

Bhojpur103

Darbhanga143

Gopalganj123

Jehanabad178

Kaimur (bhabua)105

Lakhisarai72

Madhepura82

Madhubani199

Nalanda123

Nawada122

PurbiChamparan138

Purnia135

Saran101

Siwan139

Vaishali87

Araria68

Jamui47

Katihar175

Khagaria253

Kishanganj75

Muzaffarpur96

Pashchim Champaran57

Saharsa88

Samastipur139

Sheikhpura118

Sheohar20

Sitamarhi73

Supaul87

179832 1130

12664

166276 1289

892 4

DistrictCases

24 Paraganas North1031

24 Paraganas South281

Darjeeling97

Howrah1435

Jalpaiguri88

Kalimpong18

Kolkata2777

Maldah235

Medinipur East153

Medinipur West159

Hooghly604

Murshidabad125

Nadia139

Paschim Bardhaman70

Purba Bardhaman130

Alipurduar39

Bankura116

Birbhum206

Coochbehar210

Dinajpur Dakshin50

Dinajpur Uttar216

Jhargram9

Purulia66

250580 3155

25899 176

219844 2923

4837 56

DistrictCases

South Andamans33

Nicobars1

North And Middle Andaman1

3803 9

168

3582 29

53

DistrictCases

Pondicherry111

Karaikal2

Mahe4

Yanam0

26685 285

5014

21156 508

515 2

DistrictCases

Anjaw0

Changlang31

Dibang Valley0

East Kameng0

East Siang1

Kamle0

KraDaadi0

KurungKumey0

Leparada0

Lohit3

Longding0

Lower Dibang Valley0

Lower Siang0

Lower Subansiri0

Namsai2

PakkeKessang1

Papum Pare8

Shi Yomi0

Siang0

Tawang1

Tirap0

Upper Siang1

Upper Subansiri0

West Kameng0

West Siang1

9332 328

2725 230

6592 97

15 1

DistrictCases

Dimapur20

Kiphire3

Kohima7

Longleng0

Mokokchung0

Mon8

Peren2

Phek1

Tuensang3

Wokha0

Zunheboto0

5957 11

1002

4938 50

17 1

DistrictCases

Dadra And Nagar Haveli20

3012 10

133

2877 29

2

DistrictCases

Ranchi148

Bokaro16

Deoghar5

Dhanbad32

Garhwa80

Giridih19

Hazaribagh110

Jamtara2

Koderma58

Simdega48

Chatra1

Dumka5

East Singhbum170

Godda2

Gumla28

Khunti10

Latehar14

Lohardaga8

Pakur4

Palamu27

Ramgarh75

Sahebganj0

SaraikelaKharsawan20

West Singhbhum21

81417 1508

12126

68603 1806

688 9

DistrictCases

Gomati74

North Tripura14

Dhalai196

Khowai24

Sepahijala174

South Tripura53

Unakoti49

West Tripura45

25353 432

5874 185

19203 244

276 3

DistrictCases

Kargil77

LehLadakh43

4152 49

1030 17

3064 32

58

DistrictCases

Anantnag395

Bandipora175

Shopian255

Srinagar300

Baramulla271

Budgam110

Ganderbal37

Jammu138

Kathua53

Kulgam295

Kupwara231

Rajouri39

Ramban151

Reasi26

Samba25

Udhampur155

Mirpur0

Muzaffarabad0

Doda27

Kishtwar10

Poonch35

Pulwama108

73014 824

17601

54267 1408

1146 14

DistrictCases

Chamba29

Hamirpur117

Kangra105

Sirmaur11

Solan32

Una41

Bilaspur21

Kinnaur2

Kullu4

Lahaul And Spiti0

Mandi21

Shimla10

14457 266

3650

10627 268

180 5

DistrictCases

Jalandhar297

Ludhiana293

Patiala132

Amritsar485

Barnala25

Faridkot74

Firozepur50

Gurdaspur154

Hoshiarpur140

Kapurthala44

Mansa31

Moga65

Pathankot86

S.A.S Nagar137

Sangrur107

Shahid Bhagat Singh Nagar (Nawanshahr)99

Sri Muktsar Sahib71

Tarn Taran163

Bathinda60

Fatehgarh Sahib57

Fazilka53

Rupnagar (Ropar)74

111375 1269

17746

90345 2033

3284 46

DistrictCases

Haridwar94

Dehradun370

Nainital323

Almora71

Bageshwar31

Chamoli36

Champawat45

PauriGarhwal36

Pithoragarh43

Rudraprayag30

Tehri Garhwal110

Udam Singh Nagar83

Uttar Kashi24

47502 457

10066

36856 1184

580 6

DistrictCases

Bishnupur7

Chandel5

Churachandpur32

Imphal East10

Imphal West21

Jiribam3

Kakching2

Kamjong5

Kangpokpi26

Noney1

Pherzawl3

Senapati6

Tamenglong2

Tengnoupal9

Thoubal18

Ukhrul4

10477 178

2431 72

7982 106

64

DistrictCases

Chandigarh313

11678 125

2200

9325 222

153 6

DistrictCases

East Khasi Hills22

East Garo Hills0

East Jaintia Hills0

North Garo Hills1

Ribhoi0

South Garo Hills0

South West Garo Hills4

South West Khasi Hills0

West Garo Hills5

West Jaintia Hills1

West Khasi Hills1

5362 60

1448

3868 89

46 3

DistrictCases

Aizawl10

Champhai0

Hnahthial0

Khawzawl0

Kolasib11

Lawngtlai2

Lunglei2

Mamit8

Saiha0

Saitual1

Serchhip0

1958 50

499

1459 86

0

DistrictCases

Lakshadweep District0

0

0

0

0

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